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Scientific Frontline Space Weather, Atmospheric, Oceans, and Climate Forecast Center
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Credits and Information | Solar Region Summary | Current Solar Videos | Space Weather Alerts | Geophysical Alert Message
Solar and Geophysical Activity Summary | Wing kp Geomagnetic Activity Index | Solar Wind Plasma
Farside Image | Current Space Weather Indices | Auroral Activity | Report of Solar-Geophysical Activity | Weekly Highlights and Forecasts
Solar, Earth Atmospheric and Climate Gallery | Latest Space Weather News | Other Current Data | Special Notices
Related Pages, Images, Video's
Sunspots | HMI Continuum | HMI_Magnetogram | LASCO C2 | LASCO C3 | EIT 171 | EIT 195 | EIT 284 | EIT 304
EUVI 195 Behind | COR1 Behind | COR2 Behind | HI1 Behind | HI2 Behind | EUVI 195 Ahead | COR1 Ahead | COR2 Ahead | HI1 Ahead | HI2 Ahead
AIA 094 | AIA 131 | AIA 171 | AIA 193 | AIA 211 | AIA 304 | AIA 335 | AIA 1600 | AIA 1700 | AIA 4500 | SWAP
Solar Winds | Solar Flares | NOAA Space Weather Scales | Sunspot Numbers | Interplanetary Magnetic Field
Glossary of Solar-Terrestrial Terms | Solar, Earth Atmospheric and Climate Gallery
Credits and Information
Information is compiled through the following agencies or sites.
NOAA / SWPC / SOHO / GOES / POES / ESA / NASA / ACE / SSC / SDO / AIA consortium / HMI consortium / SWENET / U.S.A.F. / Lockheed Martin / SWAP / SIDC / GONG
The Information contains the latest Solar and Geophysical Activity from the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center.
Information is provided by synchronization using Siber Systems, Inc GoodSync through several government FTP servers to Scientific Frontline servers on a 03 minute interval.
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 Solar Region Summary

Current Solar Videos
Videos update every 3 hrs. Corresponding images update every 05 minutes
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Select individual movies below
Combined and Event Tracking videos update every 12 to 24 hrs.
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Combined Solar
Event Tracking 1
Event Tracking 2
Event Tracking 3
Space Weather Alerts Issued in the last 24 hours

Geophysical Alert Message

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Solar and Geophysical Activity Summary

Satellite Environment 3 Day Plot

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Wing Kp Predicted Activity Index

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Current 15-minute Wing Kp Geomagnetic Activity Index List

The plots show the latest predicted planetary geomagnetic activity index (Kp) from the U. S. Air Force Weather Agency Wing Kp model. The plots include the current 1-hour and 4-hour Kp predictions, plus recent predictions with the observed Estimated Kp

The top panel plot shows the two 1-hour and 4-hour Kp index model predictions and the corresponding confidence level. The solid horizontal green bar shows the 3-hour interval over which the latest predictions are valid. Error bars are plotted to show the 50% confidence interval.

1-hour prediction, plotted with filled-in circles
4-hour prediction, plotted in plus (+) symbols.

Prediction points in the top panel are plotted at the model valid time (run time + Propagation time), which is usually 30-90 minutes into the future for the 1-hour prediction and 210-270 minutes into the future for the 4-hour prediction.
The solid blue line is the Estimated Kp index.
The dashed red line indicates the lowest alert level, G1 (minor), on the NOAA Space Weather Scale for Geomagnetic Storms.

The predictions are color coded according to the amount of solar wind data that was available for each model run; green (most data) and yellow (little data).

The bottom Lead Time panel shows an estimate of the actual lead time for the 1-hour and 4-hour predictions. The left plot legend shows the 1-hour lead time and the 4-hour lead time is shown on the right. The actual lead time depends on solar wind speed and can be greater than or less than one hour depending on the solar wind speed. The predictions are calculated using the ACE Real-Time solar wind speed data. The lead time is the time for the solar wind to propagate from the ACE satellite, at L1, to the Earth.
Missing Kp values, Lead Time values, or model output indicates the data is not available.
Solar Wind Plasma
ACE DATA November 2013

Scroll to end for current data

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ACE 2 Hour Plot
Magnetic field and Plasma
Updated every 10 minutes

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Real-Time Solar Wind data dials
Dials are updated every 10 minutes with data averaged over last 15 minutes.
The data are the Real-Time Solar Wind data broadcast from
NASA's ACE satellite.

How to read and understand the ACE Solar Wind dials
GONG Farside Image
These images are whole-Sun maps of magnetic activity. They show 360 degrees of longitude in the Carrington coordinate system normally used for solar observations. The map extent is from south pole to north pole in an equal area projection. The solar equator and each 60 degrees of longitude are marked.
The Earthside, or near-side, data are smoothed magnetic flux as measured by GONG. The images are shown to 70 degrees from disk center. Each magnetogram takes only one minute to observe.
The farside images are maps of wave speed variations with locations of faster wave speed shown darker. These darker regions indicate locations where there is an accumulation of magnetic field on the far surface. The farside images can only be computed out to 45 degrees from the farside disk center as (un)seen from Earth. A full 24-hours of GONG surface velocity data is used to compute each image.
Current Space Weather Indices

Auroral Activity
Northern Hemisphere

Southern Hemisphere

This plot shows the current extent and position of the auroral oval in the northern and southern hemisphere, extrapolated from measurements taken during the most recent polar pass of the NOAA POES satellite.
The red arrow points toward the noon meridian.
The statistical pattern depicting the auroral oval is appropriate to the auroral activity level determined from the power flux observed during the most recent polar satellite pass. The power fluxes in the statistical pattern are color coded on a scale from 0 to 10 ergs .cm-2.sec-1 according to the color bar on the right. The pattern has been oriented with respect to the underlying geographic map using the current universal time, updated every ten minutes.
This presentation provides an estimate of the location, extent, and intensity of aurora on a global basis. For example, the presentation gives a guide to the possibility that the aurora is located near a given location in the northern and southern hemisphere under the conditions that existed at the time of the most recent polar satellite pass.
Normalization factor (n)
A normalization factor of less than 2.0 indicates a reasonable level of confidence in the estimate of power. The more the value of n exceeds 2.0, the less confidence should be placed in the estimate of hemispheric power and the activity level.
The process to estimate the hemispheric power, and the level of auroral activity, involves using this normalization factor which takes into account how effective the satellite was in sampling the aurora during its transit over the polar region. A large (> 2.0) normalization factor indicates that the transit through the aurora was not very effective and the resulting estimate of auroral activity has a lower confidence.
Report of Solar-Geophysical Activity

Weekly Highlights and Forecasts

Solar, Earth Atmospheric and Climate Gallery

RBSP Science Overview

Sept. 05, 2012
The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and astronauts. Project Scientist David Sibeck explains the how the mission will explore space weather -- changes in Earth's space environment caused by the sun -- that can disable satellites, create power grid failures and disrupt GPS service.

GPM Applications

Sept. 04, 2012
Water is fundamental to life on Earth. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth’s water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. Since rainfall and snowfall vary greatly from place to place and over time, satellites can provide more uniform observations of rain and snow around the globe than ground instruments, especially in areas where surface measurements are difficult.

Birth of a Space Laser Instrument

Sept. 04, 2012
A new C02 laser, which will globally measure carbon dioxide from space, is due to be launched in 2023 on the ASCENDS mission. One of the exciting things about this project is that you can actually watch trees eat and breathe. Of course, trees are breathing all the time, but they are only eating, meaning, performing photosynthesis when the sun is out. The main science is to measure how much carbon dioxide there is in the atmosphere at this particular time on the Earth, how much is there total and where is it located.

Imported Dust in North American Skies

Sept. 03, 2012
NASA and university scientists have made the first measurement-based estimate of the amount and composition of tiny airborne particles that arrive in the air over North America each year. With a 3D view of the atmosphere now possible from satellites, the scientists distinguished dust from pollution, and calculated that dust is the main ingredient of these foreign imports.

The Ocean

Aug. 31, 2012
The Ocean is essential to life on Earth. Most of Earth’s water is stored in the ocean. Although 40 percent of Earth’s population lives within, or near coastal regions- the ocean impacts people everywhere. Without the ocean, our planet would be uninhabitable. This animation helps to convey the importance of Earth’s oceanic processes as one component of Earth’s interrelated systems.
Latest Space Weather News
SDO: Commissioning and Handover

May 18, 2010
In order to provide the clearest scientific data for its entire 5 year mission, SDO had to undergo a rigorous, 2 month testing phase. After giving it an all-clear, the team of people who designed, built and tested the satellite now have to say goodbye as they hand it over to the scientists who will begin collecting data.
Shocking recipe for making killer electrons

Mar. 11, 2010
Take a bunch of fast-moving electrons, place them in orbit and then hit them with the shock waves from a solar storm. What do you get? Killer electrons. That’s the shocking recipe revealed by ESA’s Cluster mission. Killer electrons are highly energetic particles trapped in Earth's outer radiation belt, which extends from 12 000 km to 64 000 km above the planet’s surface.
Other Current Data
Coming Soon
Special Notices
GOES 15 Designated Primary X-ray Satellite
October 28, 2010 -- GOES 15 replaced GOES 14 as the Primary SWPC GOES
X-ray Satellite. GOES 14 is being moved into storage. There is no
Secondary SWPC GOES X-ray satellite.

X-ray ascii data files use the file naming convention 'Gp' for GOES
Primary, this means only header lines changes.

At 0000UT OCTOBER 28
GOES 15 Will Replace GOES 14 as Primary Satellite for XRS data
October 13, 2010: At 0000 UT October 28 GOES 15 will replace GOES 14
as the Primary SWPC GOES X-ray Satellite. GOES 14 is being moved into
storage. There is no Secondary SWPC GOES X-ray satellite.

X-ray ascii data files use the file naming convention 'Gp' for GOES
Primary, this means only header lines changes.

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